Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is a set of multifactorial pathologies that are the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (over 30% of the annual deaths). High density lipoproteins (HDL) carry out cholesterol transport in the organism, so low levels of HDL-cholesterol have been traditionally linked to atherosclerosis and CVD. Instead, a growing body of evidence suggests that the main determinant for CVD is instead the loss of HDL functionality.
HDL performs several key biological functions besides lipid transport, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and antioxidant responses. Its functional versatility depends on its components (proteins, lipids, metabolites, microRNA) and maturation stage, but whether these elements could be use as biomarkers of disease is still unclear.